Jayesh, M. Endemska sloboda kulture Crnobrnja, Stanko, Estetika televizije i novih medija Clio, Beograd, Keen, Andrew, Kult amatera, Fraktura, Zagreb, Tancer, Bill, Klik, Algoritam, Zagreb,
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Jayesh, M. Endemska sloboda kulture Crnobrnja, Stanko, Estetika televizije i novih medija Clio, Beograd, Keen, Andrew, Kult amatera, Fraktura, Zagreb, Tancer, Bill, Klik, Algoritam, Zagreb, Thompson, Damian, Kontraznanje, Algoritam, Zagreb, Zlatar, Andrea, Prostor grada, prostor kulture, Ljevak, Zagreb, Quite the contrary, it demands we overcome these fascinations of the early 21st century.
Keywords: postmodernism, paradigm, transition, media, communication, Facebook, Internet. Literatura: Fogarty, Anne Jenkins, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, str. Harding, Jason Jones, Sharon Lynette Miller, Cristanne Milne, Drew Nicholls, Peter Patke, Rajeev S. Postcolonial Poetry in English.
Oxford University Press, Oxford. Peppis, Paul Ramazani, Jahan Sweeney, Carole Tarlo, Harriet Wallerstein, Immanuel I treat Irish modernism and modernism of the Harlem Renaissance as peripheral modernisms in relation to mainstream Anglophone modernism, pointing to how postcolonial and feminist criticism treat them.
Key words: Harlem Renaissance, Irish modernism, modernism, poetics, politics, race, gender. Moreover, that included a rapidly changing set of shifting attitudes towards the Sephardic minorities in 16th — 17th century Western Europe. Colonial life was filled with various distinctive traits — divergent from its European counterpart. At its early beginnings, religion did serve as a driving force for various Sephardic communities to move beyond Europe and disperse in different corners of the New World colonies.
The essence of these new conditions in the Americas, particularly North America, was the improvement of Judeo-Christian relations as well as the emergence of rich religious communal life, greatly embodied in obtaining the Torah scroll and building new synagogues. However these two, above mentioned, groups had a distinct set of mercantile networks. The Sephardim lived in Jewish communities in the homelands or colonies of those western European states where religious freedoms were vastly tolerated Dutch Republic, England, and Italy etc.
Crypto-Jewish communities lived in rigid catholic societies in which any sort of allegiance to the Jewish religion was strictly prohibited Israel 3.
Atlantic history has emphasized the engagement of both of these groups to disperse out of Europe and seek emancipation within the intricate networks and opportunities that the Atlantic trade had to offer for those skillful enough.
Since the New Christians conversos were outnumbering the populations that were open about their Jewishness, the whole cultural system was rather flexible. Therefore, the bonds were mostly made through shared Sephardic ethnicities and birth places Sutcliffe The key to studying Atlantic history is the notion that fixed narratives of the past and the nation- based communities of the European world were slowly fading.
It is the world of the Jewish port communities that would reveal a whole new aspect of exchange of ideas among various communities within and outside the European and the Atlantic world, respectively. However it might seem idealistic — the notion of port cities being the places of tolerance, which proved to be somewhat true — the social interaction between different ethnicities and especially religious groups was greatly restricted.
Amsterdam in that way presented a place where local Sephardic rabbis attempted to minimize the interactions between the Jews and the non-Jews. They would most often turn to a form of communal ban — herem — in case such inter-religious transgression might occur. Therefore, however these notions of cultural empathy and acceptance might seem present, the desire for religious normativity and preservation of many distinct cultural traits was more dominant.
In an environment in which the information fluctuated at a slower pace and the legal reinforcement was weak especially in the newly appointed colonies of the West credit and trust were the essential keys to tying the closer networks of trade and exchange.
The entwining nature of kinship and shared religion were widely present within the members of diverse trading communities. Populations such as Quakers, Jews, Basques and others based themselves on the cultivation of those tight kin networks in order to fight against fraud.
In the same way, the community members who were caught in some sort of transgressions would be condemned publicly for their dishonesty and lack of honor, preventing them ultimately to join in the same network they were before. As many societies assimilated with ease in the Americas, the Sephardic Diaspora, as scarce as it is nowadays, is one of the rare ones to show resilience and avoid the dangers of assimilation — a logical course of a long-term residence with divergent ethnic groups.
As one of the case study examples, the Portuguese Jewish entrepreneurs of first settlements of Suriname, who engaged only in the shortterm speculative commerce — were nevertheless tracing their settlement origins and well aware of them through generations Sutcliffe The Sephardim of Curacao, far from any sort of ethnocentric aspirations, are even to this day proudly presenting their ancestors- the first settlers on the island and their key role in the development of the distinct type of Creole language.
A shared idea of common language, religious freedoms and the agricultural productivity were vastly present among the Jewish, as well as non-Jewish communities. Persons like Menasseh ben Israel strongly believed in the ties with Native Americans, placing their origins within the lost tribes of Israel.
Upon his arrival to Amsterdam, Montezinos revealed the fantastic story to a welcoming audience with a testimony under oath to one of the leading rabbis at the time. This attests to the extent of which the Sephardic communities of the west European countries were embedded in the Judeo-Christian cultural formation and commercial together with theological narratives of colonial settlement closely laid out the ground for further financial conquests.
Consequently, the settlement of North America was shaped by multiple difficulties of realities of the long- distance trading networks and as Sutcliffe points out again — gave impetus for the later emergence of American independence Sutcliffe The communities of Atlantic Sephardim showed a pragmatic nature about their political affiliations and loyalties.
In the early stages of their settlement in the North America as well as the rest of the Atlantic especially the Sephardics in the Caribbean , these communities simultaneously attained the same amount of ties with Dutch or English attachments. However, such ties and connections were not always of a long term character and eventually started decreasing by the mid 18thcentury with the simultaneous distancing of the Sephardics across the Atlantic with its religious and community roots.
Therefore at the start of the 19th century the assimilation into a more dominant culture became an inevitable outcome for most of these religiously and ethnically diverse communities Sutcliffe The colonial life was filled with various distinctive traits — divergent from its European counterpart. Sarna According to Jonathan Sarna — the essence of communal religious life in the British North America was embodied in the Torah scroll.
It is a much more reliable marker of the extent of Jewish presence in a certain area. Torah is and was the essence of creating the social intricate social fabric. I would therefore agree, with the previously mentioned author and regard the Torah Scroll with a poststructuralist approach: its importance emphasizes the meaning it bears and which thoughts it stimulates within a given community.
In the same way, the arrival of a Torah scroll Public worship, and the synagogue — community spirit kept the ties together and was responsible for preserving and continuing the local Jewish life Sarna This system of congregation proved to be highly efficient in providing the needs of a far outpost of a growing community.
Innovations were restricted; it was the motive of imitating the forefathers that was the duty of the congregation. Colonial American synagogues differed from the European and West Indies counterparts in their direct relationship to the state. Whilst in places like Curacao and the Virgin Islands, synagogue leaders needed the authorities to secure their authorities, in the land such as British America, where religious pluralities were the common basis of every colonial American settlement, a great deal of autonomy was given to churches as well as to the synagogues.
In this way the church leaders themselves practiced their own authority. The highest form of punishment, for instance in the 18th century Amsterdam, was herem or excommunication. It was scarcely ever evoked, however the penalties were pretty frequent and person that was not in compliance to the rules of the congregation might risk losing his or her right to a proper Jewish burial within the community cemetery.
Seating arrangements in the largest cities where Sephardic communities of the British colonies resided, such as New York and Newport Rhode Island very clearly mirrored the social hierarchies and networks. In that way, one of the wealthiest families in New York the Gomez family enjoyed the most prestigious seats, much closer to the Holy Ark.
The worshipper, especially the one with elite status, had to pay a carefully assessed tax in advance in order to acquire the adequate seating Sarna Restraining and socially stratified, yet these colonial synagogue communities did not tax the commercial transactions as synagogues in Europe did nor did they punish members for specific personal beliefs or mistakes in the business morality. Like the neighboring churches, the synagogues of the Colonial America served to perform their own activities in religiously disciplining members who wished to be closer to faith and Jewish tradition.
However, while private practices and beliefs of the Jews of British America distinguished them from the rest of their Christian neighbors — trade, social interaction on the street and everyday communication may have made these differences less clear. Since the majority of the citizens with the British colony no matter if Christian or Jewish were themselves the victims of different, mostly religious persecutions, these diverse communities managed to live side by side in peace.
That triggered another set of assimilations caused my occasional intermarriages. Namely, according to J. The increasingly diverse and pluralistic type of the society that Colonial America and later on, Independent America, started to turn into, forced many members of the Sephardim to change the ways they regard themselves and recreate the societal image that was present at the time. The large numbers of Ashkenazim settlers contributed greatly to the wider mixing and blending of the two groups.
Meanwhile in Jamaica, Barbados, and Curacao — Judaism acquired different forms of the AngloJewry in the 18th century, maintaining as long as possible the traditions that characterized these fervent communities in their efforts to preserve the Sephardic tradition and norms.
Glassi, H. Kagan and Philip D. Morgan eds. Sarna, J. Scmidt, B. Sutcliffe, A. To je donelo niz promena u stavovima prema sefardskim zajednicama Zapadne Evrope u This project transformed Skopje into a city that has the biggest number of bronze horsemen and of monumental sculptures, for whose realization the artists use any type of stylistic expression, where the soc-realistic language is also quite strongly imposed.
At the same time the visualization of this ideological project, full of nationalromantic and conservative premises, stimulates disapprovals, then public and sharp political debates, verbal, even physical inter-ethnic scenes, or even conflicts on the international level.
But it is certainly a must to underline that it is a mis use of art, which obviously damages the aesthetic level of the content of the project. But in any case, this stylistic-aesthetic dictionary is more adequate in architectonic content than in sculptural monuments of the project. Interlace of several styles and directions compose amalgam that resembles a type of eclecticism, which carries another defect called kitsch, through which the insipidity of the artistic view rises to the surface.
But no-one mentions soc-realism, which as a type of reincarnated method appropriated by governmental conservatives for the needs of conceptual and artistic solutions of the Project Skopje Key words: antiqusation, art, doctrine, eclecticism, modernism, soc-realism.
It seems that this title corresponds with the story of the monuments which have been raised in the last few years in Skopje.
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