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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Yuni Antika. Pada bagian psikiatri, gangguan yang sering ditemukan di klinik adalah gangguan somatisasi dan hipokondriasis.

Kriteria diagnostik untuk Gangguan Somatisasi A. Keluhan fisik dimulai sebelum usia 30 tahun, terjadi selama periode beberapa tahun B. Gejala tidak ditimbulkan secara sengaja atau dibuat-buat seperti gangguan buatan atau pura-pura. Pasien susah sembuh walo sudah ngikutin pedoman pengobatan.

Sering kali pada psien wanita berakhir pada percobaan bunuh diri. Setelah pemeriksaan yang tepat, gejala tidak dapat dijelaskan sepenuhnya oleh kondisi medis umum yang diketahui atau oleh efek langsung dari suatu zat misalnya efek cedera, medikasi, obat, atau alkohol B. Jika terdapat kondisi medis umum yang berhubungan, keluhan fisik atau gangguan sosial atau pekerjaan yang ditimbulkannya adalah melebihi apa yang diperkirakan menurut riwayat penyakit, pemeriksaan fisik, atau temuan laboratonium.

Durasi gangguan sekurangnya enam bulan. Berbeda dengan gangguan somatisasi dimana pasien biasanya meminta pengobatan terhadap penyakitnya yang seringkali menyebabkan terjadinya penyalahgunaan obat, maka pada gangguan hipokondrik pasien malah takut untuk makan obat karena dikira dapat menambah keparahan dari sakitnya.

Lama gangguan sekurangnya 6 bulan. Axis IV :??? Sedangkan pada nyeri somatoform, pasien malah bertindak sebaliknya. Axis IV :???? Gangguan konversi Adalah suatu tipe gangguan somatoform yang ditandai oleh kehilangan atau kendala dalam fungsi fisik, namun tidak ada penyebab organis yang jelas.

Gangguan ini dinamakan konversi karena adanya keyakinan psikodinamika bahwa gangguan tersebut mencerminkan penyaluran, atau konversi, dari energi seksual atau agresif yang direpresikan ke simtom fisik. Individu berusaha untuk berperilaku sesuai dengan pandangan mereka mengenai bagaimana seseorang dengan penyakit yang mempengaruhi kemampuan motorik atau sensorik, akan bereaksi. Biasanya terjadi pada usia anak-anak akhir hingga dewasa awal. Jarang terjadi sebelum usia 10 tahun dan setelah 35 tahun.

Prognosis buruk jika terjadi hal sebaliknya. Membuatnya bisa berlama-lama berkaca di depan cermin memandang bentuk tubuh yang dianggapnya kurang, sering pasien mendatangi spesialis bedah dan kecantikan. Jika ditemukan sedikit anomali tubuh, kekhawatiran orang tersebut menjadi berlebihan.

We do it often enough on a fairly conscious level when we provide ourselves with excuses. But for many people, with sensitive egos, making excuses comes so easy that they never are truly aware of it. In other words, many of us are quite prepared to believe our lies.

By using the reaction formation the id is satisfied while keeping the ego in ignorance of the true motives. Conscious feelings are the opposite of the unconscious. Love - hate. Shame - disgust and moralizing are reaction formation against sexuality. Usually a reaction formation is marked by showiness and compulsiveness. For example, Freud claimed that men who are prejudice against homosexuals are making a defense against their own homosexual feelings by adopting a harsh anti-homosexual attitude which helps convince them of their heterosexuality.

This section explains how to live with stress and the different coping strategies. What is coping? Coping refers to the thoughts and actions we use to deal with a threatening situation. A stressful situation may be considered a threat for you but not necessarily for your neighbor.

You and your neighbor may become stressed by the same situation, but for different reasons e. After all, since we all become stressed for various reasons we will need to choose different coping strategies. As you will see, there are many strategies and some are better than others. Two different coping strategies Problem-focused strategy This strategy relies on using active ways to directly tackle the situation that caused the stress: you must concentrate on the problem.

Analyze the situation e. Pay attention, avoid taking on more responsibility than you can manage. Work harder e. Stay up all night to study for an exam 3. Apply what you have already learned to your daily life.

You lose your job for the second time - you now know the steps to apply for a new job 4. Talk to a person that has a direct impact on the situation e. Talk directly to your boss to ask for an extension to the project that is due in one week. Emotion-focused strategy Emotion-focused coping strategies are used to handle feelings of distress, rather than the actual problem situation. You focus on your emotions: 1.

Brood e. You dream about a better financial situation. Blame e. You blame yourself or others for the situation. Social support e. You talk to your best friend about your concerns. In a long-term perspective, are these strategies harmful? Imagine that you are having a bad day at work and that you do not feel like seeing your boss. You can avoid him for many hours or even a day, but if you avoid him everyday this strategy will become unsuccessful and may even cause extra stress.

This is why it is important to develop different strategies in order to adapt to different situations. Efficient coping strategies Coping strategies are different depending on the situation and the person; here are some good coping strategies. Be positive! Look at each obstacle you encounter as a learning experience e. Make the choice not to over-react to stressors and deal with them one at a time e.

Take an objective view of your stressor e. Accept yourself and others. No one is perfect and there is always room for mistakes. Make connections with people Social support is key! Deal effectively with mistakes i. Learn from your mistakes and apply them to future decision making. Deal effectively with successes also! This will build on your competence. Develop self-discipline and control e. Practice, practice, practice for a long life of resilient living!

Now that you know how to recognize your stress and you know the different coping strategies, you just need to find the coping strategies that work best for you and apply them to your daily life. Improved self-esteem is a key psychological benefit of regular physical activity. When you exercise, your body releases chemicals called endorphins.

These endorphins interact with the receptors in your brainthat reduce your perception of pain. Endorphins also trigger a positive feeling in the body, similar to that ofmorphine. For example, the feeling that follows a run or workout is often described as "euphoric. Endorphins act as analgesics, which means they diminish the perception of pain.

They also act as sedatives. They are manufactured in your brain, spinal cord, and many other parts of your body and are released in response to brain chemicals called neurotransmitters.

The neuron receptors endorphins bind to are the same ones that bind some pain medicines. However, unlike with morphine, the activation of these receptors by the body's endorphins does not lead to addiction or dependence. Is Exercise a Treatment for Clinical Depression? Research has shown that exercise is an effective but often underused treatment for mild to moderate depression. Cortisol, a glucocorticoid steroid hormone , is produced from cholesterol in the two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney.

Of interest to the dietetics community, cortisol also plays an important role in human nutrition. It regulates energy by selecting the right type and amount of substrate carbohydrate, fat, or protein the body needs to meet the physiological demands placed on it. When chronically elevated, cortisol can have deleterious effects on weight, immune function, and chronic disease risk.

The resulting biochemical and hormonal imbalances ideally resolve due to a hormonally driven negative feedback loop. The following is a typical example of how the stress response operates as its intended survival mechanism: Whole-Body Effects of Elevated Cortisol Blood Sugar Imbalance and Diabetes Under stressful conditions, cortisol provides the body with glucose by tapping into protein stores via gluconeogenesis in the liver.

This energy can help an individual fight or flee a stressor.


Gangguan Dismorfik Tubuh

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