Aguilera, M. Propiedades funcionales de las antocianinas. Arroyo, J. Atmani, D.
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Anthocyanins and color in grain and cob of peruvian purple corn grown in Jalisco, Mexico. The grain and cob Zea mays L. The objective was to determine the effect of the environment temperature of seed production on the content of anthocyanins in grain CATg and cob CATo and its correlation in a purple corn population of Peru.
The seeds of the two environments were sown in the S-S cycle in Tepatitlan, Jalisco. They were pollinated from to plants. An analysis of variance and correlation of Person was made.
The seed obtained in Tepatitlan average temperature Interest in food free of artificial colors has increased, possibly due to the criticism of the innocuousness of some of the synthetic dyes, particularly red allura red 40 , red 3 and red 4, which are related to hyperactivity in children Arnold et al.
Anthocyanins are phenolic compounds responsible for the colors in pink to purple, which have flowers and fruits. Anthocyanins can be obtained from the grain of some varieties of corn Zea mays L. The content of total anthocyanins CAT in the grain of corn varies according to the color of the grain and the genotype, the deep purple grains have higher CAT than the blue, purple or red grains Espinosa et al.
In grains of S 2 lines derived from the purple corn population of San Juan Ixtenco, Tlaxcala, values were reported between and mg ECG kg -1 of sample, doubling that obtained in blue-purple grain corn Mendoza-Mendoza et al. Purple corn is a common corn variety in Ecuador and Peru Jing et al. For this reason, although in Mexico there is a great diversity of native corn with anthocyanins in grain and cob, it is preferable to use an exotic material as a donor to accelerate the process of obtaining varieties with high CAT.
The synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins are processes governed by the genetic information of the material and the interaction with its environment Gazula et al. Of the environmental factors, the ones with the greatest impact on the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis are temperature and luminosity Jaakola, In purple corn, high temperature reduces the accumulation of anthocyanins, while its synthesis increases at low temperatures Jing et al.
However, the effect of any increase and corns selection of purple in the autumn-winter agricultural cycle where the temperature rises in April and May is unknown, which may affect the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins. The objectives of the study were: a to determine the effect of the production environment of the seed on the content of anthocyanins in grain CATg and cob CATo of a population of purple corn of Peru, under the hypothesis that the effect that has the environment of seed production on the CATg and CATo variables are not inherited to its subsidiary; and b analyze the relation of the color variables in grain and cob, with the content of anthocyanins, to assess if it is possible to make selection by color of grain for anthocyanin content.
As for the harvest, purple corn of Peruvian origin was obtained from two environments. The multiplication was carried out through fraternal crosses with pollination between and plants.
Subsequent analyzes were performed on grains and cobs of the selected ears. The maximum and minimum temperatures that were presented from the sowing to the Kculli harvest were obtained from the climatic stations of the experimental fields where the seed increase was made. The middle section of each ear was shelled the grains by ear between and , and the corresponding ear portion were placed in paper envelopes. Said sample was used for the physical analyzes of grain and CAT.
The portion of cob of the middle part of the ear was crushed with a marro and subsequently ground in a Retsch mill ZM, P, Germany , with a mesh of 0.
The weight of seeds PCS was quantified in a semi-analytical balance Sartorius BL , with two repetitions per ear. For pericarp thickness EP , 10 healthy grains were randomly taken and soaked in water for 20 min at room temperature. With the help of a scalpel the pedicel and the crown were cut, making lateral cuts to the grain to separate the pericarp.
Five layers of pericarp were placed opposite the germ and the reading was taken in mm in the central part of the group of layers, with a digital micrometer Digimatic Mitutoyo The result was divided by five to obtain the EP of a layer. A standard curve of cyanidin 3-glucoside Extrasinthase, France was prepared to express the results in mg equivalents of cyanidin 3-glucoside ECG in g of dry sample MS.
Profile of anthocyanins in grain and cob corn purple by high performance liquid chromatography HPLC. The analysis was carried out with the methodology of Fossen et al. Extracts of grain and cob samples were selected with anthocyanin contrasting contents from each environment.
A couple of samples for each seed source. The identity of the peaks was made by comparing the retention times and UV-visible spectrum of commercial standards of cyanidin 3-glucoside Cy 3-glu , pelargonidin 3-glucoside Pg 3-glu and peonidin 3-glucoside Pn 3-glu Polyphenols, Nw and considering previous works in the analysis of the content of anthocyanins in purple corn Moreno et al.
The identification of acylated type anthocyanins was achieved by analyzing the sample after alkaline hydrolysis de Pascual-Teresa et al. With this hydrolysis the acylated anthocyanins are eliminated and do not appear in the chromatogram. The data were analyzed under a completely randomized design, in which the populations obtained from seeds from La Huerta and Tepatitlan, Jalisco were considered as treatments.
As repetitions, the number of ears selected within each population was considered, which were 26 and 17 ears of corn. All the variables were analyzed in duplicate. SAS Institute, The hue of the grain varied between 9. The proportion of grains with contrasting tones was low and in general the grain presented a dark red-purple color. Figure 1. Both grain and cob have the same color tone, but the cob is darker and more intense.
Lower chroma values indicate darker shades and are associated with higher anthocyanin content Salinas-Moreno et al. Chroma values observed in the grain of and were lower than those reported by Mendoza-Mendoza et al.
The grains of the ears of and had a completely mealy TE, characteristic common in corn with high content of anthocyanins in the grain Salinas-Moreno et al. Therefore, in a pigmented corn breeding program, crossings with glassy grain materials must be made, which decrease the endosperm mealy portion. The average PCS value was The desirable in corn for the extraction of pigments is low PCS, which is associated with small and medium grain size, which allows greater contact surface per unit weight and higher pigment content Salinas-Moreno et al.
The EP varied between The average values for each seed origin were located below that reported by Cassani et al.
The grain of the population showed a CATg The content of anthocyanins in the cob was greater than in the grain, a trend similar to that reported by Yang and Zhai On average, the cob presented The values obtained are greater than those of Yang and Zhai , for a hybrid of purple corn grown in China, which were Of the four variables in Table 1 , CATg and CATo had a wider distribution with respect to their mean, which reveals a high variability among the ears analyzed.
The above is due to the fact that the initial population is a segregant obtained from free pollination. Greater variability was observed in CAT than in physical characteristics of the grain, which is attributed to the number of genes that regulate each characteristic and its interaction with the evaluation and seed collection environment.
It was expected that the subsidiaries obtained in Tepatitlan, Jalisco from seeds from two environments La Huerta and Tepatitlan, Jalisco would have similar contents of anthocyanins in grain and cobs, since these are the same population and a characteristic of maternal effect Ron-Parra et al. The duration of the crop cycle in La Huerta was around four months, while in Tepatitlan it was almost six months Figure 2 , which is associated with the prevailing temperatures in each site, significantly affecting the synthesis of the anthocyanins.
Figure 2. About 10 enzymes participate in the synthesis of anthocyanins, of which the initial one is phenylalanine ammonium lyase. According to Chon et al.
The temperature and light intensity, quality and duration are relevant for the synthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins, since they affect the transcription factors related to these processes Jaakola, The genes associated with the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis as a response to temperature are independent of those that regulate the expression of light Azuma et al. In the cultivation of grapes, greater accumulation of anthocyanins has been observed under conditions of high luminosity and low temperature, than with high luminosity and high temperature.
Although, the multiplication of the corn seed in the two considered sites was carried out in different humidity regimes: irrigation in La Huerta and temporary in Tepatitlan, reports in vegetable cultivation indicate that the impact of humidity in the accumulation of anthocyanins is lower than that obtained by differences in temperature and luminosity Biesiada and Tomczak, Figure 3.
Regarding the population , In the case of the cob, showed a uniform distribution of the samples between the different anthocyanin content ranges Figure 3C. However, a greater proportion of samples in the lower range of anthocyanin content was observed in the row on plot Figure 3D. What is probably due to the temperatures of the seed increased environments.
Both in grain and in cob, 13 types of anthocyanins were separated Figure 4 A and B , of which peaks 1, 4, and 5 correspond to simple glycosylated anthocyanins, the other peaks belong to anthocyanins of the acylated type. The results obtained in the profiles of anthocyanins for grain coincide with those reported by Cuevas-Montilla et al. The differences can be attributed to the genetic structure of the cultivar, production site and applied analysis protocol. Figure 4. Chromatographic profiles of grain A and ear B of purple corn populations.
Of the variables of color in grain, none presented significant correlation with the CAT in this structure. These results indicate that the values of brightness and chroma in the cob are lower, the higher will be its CAT. The environment where the seed was increased had a significant effect on the content of anthocyanins in grain and cob of the population of purple corn analyzed, with a higher content in the grain increased in Tepatitlan, Jalisco.
The grain of the purple corn population Kculli has a higher content of anthocyanins than the grain, with a similar chromatographic profile between both structures, but with differences in the proportion of the two predominant anthocyanins. It is not possible to use any of the variables of color in grain as a criterion to select samples of purple corn for content of anthocyanins since there is no significant correlation between the variables.
For cob, the significant negative correlations of luminosity and chroma with their anthocyanin content make possible the selection for anthocyanin content through any of these variables. Arnold, L. Azuma, A. Flavonoid biosynthesis-related genes in grape skin are differentially regulated by temperature and light conditions.
Planta 4 Bedolla, S. Cooking maize for masa production. Cereals Food World 27 5 Biesiada, A. Biotic and abiotic factors affecting the content of the chosen antioxidant compounds in vegetables. Vegetable and Crops Research Bulletin. Cassani, E. Genetic studies regarding the control of seed pigmentation of an ancient European pointed maize Zea mays L.
EXTRACCIÓN DE ANTOCIANINAS DE LAS CORONTAS DE Zea mays L. "MAÍz MORADO"
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Caracterización parcial de antocianinas en extractos de maíz morado (zea mays L.)