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According to the judicial system, a republic act is a law that has already been passed and implemented. In contrast to this, a bill is merely a proposed law, in other words it may or may not be passed by the Congress. The Republic Act was signed by the President on June 12, From the notes preceding the body of the document, one may infer that the bill was originally proposed in the Legislative arm of the Philippine Republic, in the Senate and House of Representatives. According to the Official Gazette, the law was made effective thirty days after its implementation.
The mere fact that the Act was passed on the date of our independence seeks to stir up a greater sense of fervor in the Filipino, to believe in their own country and national identity—who we are as a nation. It was this time when the Philippines was heavily dependent on the American government for support and guidance.
Also, based on the fact that Jose Rizal is honored by the Philippines as the Philippine national hero, it is but appropriate that the document written to commemorate his accomplishments is written here, in the land of his birth. It is Senator Claro M. Recto who authored the Rizal Bill. While Senator Jose P. Laurel, Sr. Both of them were known for their great sense of nationalism.
This nationalism served as the foundation to come up with this republic act, to set our country free from the hands of others and stand up on our own—exactly the ideals and values that Rizal strove to fight for. It was written for the Filipino people, specifically the Filipino youth, who may have lost their sense of nationalism.
It is clear that the government had to make drastic changes to resolve the issue. This makes them more accessible to a greater audience. It is hard to make out any form of emotion from any legal document; however, the choice of words is still able to convey a fiery passion. To highlight this, they also use words or concepts that can easily relate to the common Filipino man. Such passion is vital, as the audience is presumably of dwindling nationalism. In this regard, the writer attempts to show the audience the identity they have slowly been losing, and show them how they can undo this.
There are important points that the author cited in this republic act that is worth noticing. Ideals of freedom and nationalism were very essential during those times since the Philippines was still struggling for independence, and the country was still gradually developing its national identity and integrity.
During those times havoc also existed within the Filipinos since there were numerous uprisings against the Philippine government. Moreover, even though this document was written decades ago, it is still striking because this clause is very timely for this present generation when our culture is being overpowered by foreign influence and Filipino diaspora is widespread.
Also, embedding a profound and authentic moral character and a strong sense of personal discipline in the youth would yield proficient, genuine, and selfless Filipinos of the future who would turn the Philippines from an impoverished country to a globally competitive nation. It is also important that the effects of this act would be experienced by all students even those who are financially troubled.
It is commendable that in the context of this act, the poor is well represented and that it is attainable regardless of ethnicity, social stature, and language barriers. This document was obviously written during a time when patriotism and nationalism was lost and needed, and a time when people were inspired by the initiative of the authors of this act. It was written in order to seek aide from the same brilliant mind that drove the Filipinos of the past to fight for freedom from colonists entails another need for another meaningful revolution in spite of the absence of invaders; the country may have needed a slow-paced revolution driven by patriotism against dormancy, apathy and futility.
Republic Act No. Senator Claro M. Recto was the main proponent of the Rizal Bill. He sought to sponsor the bill at Congress. However, this was met with stiff opposition from the Catholic Church. During the Senate election, the church charged Recto with being a communist and an anti-Catholic. In the campaign to oppose the Rizal bill, the Catholic Church urged its adherents to write to their congressmen and senators showing their opposition to the bill; later, it organized symposiums.
In one of these symposiums, Fr. Jesus Cavanna argued that the novels belonged to the past and that teaching them would misrepresent current conditions. Radio commentator Jesus Paredes also said that Catholics had the right to refuse to read them as it would "endanger their salvation". The Archbishop of Manila, Rufino Santos, protested in a pastoral letter that Catholic students would be affected if compulsory reading of the unexpurgated version were pushed through. Arsenio Lacson, Manila's mayor, who supported the bill, walked out of Mass when the priest read a circular from the archbishop denouncing the bill.
Rizal, according to Cuenco, "attack[ed] dogmas, beliefs and practices of the Church. The assertion that Rizal limited himself to castigating undeserving priests and refrained from criticizing, ridiculing or putting in doubt dogmas of the Catholic Church, is absolutely gratuitous and misleading.
Outside the Senate, the Catholic schools threatened to close down if the bill was passed; Recto countered that if that happened, the schools would be nationalized. The schools gave up the threat, but threatened to "punish" legislators in favor of the law in future elections.
A compromise was suggested, to use the expurgated version; Recto, who had supported the required reading of the unexpurgated version, declared: "The people who would eliminate the books of Rizal from the schools would blot out from our minds the memory of the national hero. This is not a fight against Recto but a fight against Rizal", adding that since Rizal is dead, they are attempting to suppress his memory. On May 12, , a compromise inserted by Committee on Education chairman Laurel that accommodated the objections of the Catholic Church was approved unanimously.
The bill was enacted on June 12, , Flag Day. The Noli and Fili were required readings for college students. Section 2 mandated that the students were to read the novels as they were written in Spanish, although a provision ordered that the Board of National Education create rules on how these should be applied. The last two sections were focused on making Rizal's works accessible to the general public: the second section mandated the schools to have "an adequate number" of copies in their libraries, while the third ordered the board to publish the works in major Philippine languages.
After the bill was enacted into law, there were no recorded instances of students applying for exemption from reading the novels, and there is no known procedure for such exemptions. In , President Fidel V. Ramos ordered the Department of Education, Culture and Sports to fully implement the law as there had been reports that it has still not been fully implemented.
Akbayan representative Kaka Bag-ao, one of the proponents of the RH bill, said, quoting the Catholic hierarchy, that "More than 50 years ago, they said the Rizal Law violates the Catholic's right to conscience and religion, interestingly, the same line of reasoning they use to oppose the RH bill.
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RA 1425 Batas Rizal
Do we really know Rizal? Rizal law ineffective
Republic Act No. Senator Claro M. Recto was the main proponent of the Rizal Bill. He sought to sponsor the bill at Congress.
Republic Act No. 1425
WHEREAS, today, more than any other period of our history, there is a need for a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes lived and died; WHEREAS, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their lives and works that have shaped the national character; WHEREAS, the life, works and writing of Jose Rizal, particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of patriotism with which the minds of the youth, especially during their formative and decisive years in school, should be suffused; WHEREAS, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral character, personal discipline, civic conscience and to teach the duties of citizenship; Now, therefore,. Section 1. Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his novel Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private: Provided, That in the collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo of their English translation shall be used as basic texts. The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to adopt forthwith measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this Section, including the writing and printing of appropriate primers, readers and textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty 60 days from the effectivity of this Act, promulgate rules and regulations, including those of disciplinary nature, to carry out and enforce the provisions of this Act. The Board shall promulgate rules and regulations providing for the exemption of students for reasons of religious belief stated in a sworn written statement, from the requirement of the provision contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section; but not from taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and regulations shall take effect thirty 30 days after their publication in the Official Gazette.