In , G. Skillen 43 stated that it was necessary to curette the canal walls to remove the pulp debris. Skillen and his contemporaries were occupied in Before the standardization proposed by Ingle and establishing standards for the methods of root canal the agreements among the various manufacturers, cleaning, which at the time were not standardized. His intent was to prepare the radicular ring of instruments from 1 to 6 was purely arbitrary, canal space according to precise norms of shape, si- there was no uniformity governing the progression ze, and conicity.
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In , G. Skillen 43 stated that it was necessary to curette the canal walls to remove the pulp debris. Skillen and his contemporaries were occupied in Before the standardization proposed by Ingle and establishing standards for the methods of root canal the agreements among the various manufacturers, cleaning, which at the time were not standardized.
His intent was to prepare the radicular ring of instruments from 1 to 6 was purely arbitrary, canal space according to precise norms of shape, si- there was no uniformity governing the progression ze, and conicity. In all in- shape for endodontic instruments and a standardi- struments, the difference of the diameters D1 and D16 zed endodontic technique using newly-designed is always a constant 0.
This confers a consi- obturation instruments and materials. He substitu- stent taper to instruments of whatever size taper. The colors have also been standardized. They are In accordance with this standardization, therefore, the increase in D1 from one From The obturating materials were also standardized, so The correspondence of the data presented in this table are approxima- te, as at the time there was no A.
Pennsylvania, At the Congress of the American Association of Endodontists, Schilder 38 proposed a new criterion. The number of the instrument is indicated by D1 in hundredths of millimeters. D16 is always 0. This assures constant taper among all the instru- ments. Instrumental diameters according to the standardized norms.
The new series is numbered 00, 0, then 1 to A Fig. The difference between the 6 0. Note the different in- crement in size between the old and new standardizations continued. Continued E, F. Regarding the material of which the instruments are The characteristics of stainless steel instruments Fig.
This The characteristics of carbon steel instruments Fig. The clinical use of stainless steel instruments there- The characteri-. Conventional 7 carbon steel reamer photographed by S. The tip of the sa- Macroscopically, the part in question appeared rusty x The body of Fig. Therefore, the instrument has to be reinserted more often and placed against the various parts of the canal 1.
Marketed, with the minimum many other instruments were introduced which can of variation, by all the endodontic manufacturing com- be differentiated from the traditional Files by the ma- panies, K-Files are made by twisting a steel wire with a nufacturing alloy used NiTi instead of stainless steel , square cross-section. It is only available of contact by the blades against the canal walls impro- in stainless steel with the same diameters and lengths ve the tactile perception of the operator, making the K- as K-Files 10,11,21 Fig File the ideal instrument for exploring scouting en- dodontic anatomy.
Compared to the classic K-Files, the K- bris apically, causing a plug and blocking the foramen. FlexoFiles differ regarding the tip and cross-section. Furthermore, the increased space for the removal of debris due to the triangular design in cross-section explains why there is less ten- 1. The K-Flex has Files www. Tip of a 70 K-Flex Kerr x Photograph of the body of the Fig. Photograph same instrument x Furthermore the spi- and 31 mm.
Tip x Body x S-File Furthermore tip, obtained by micromachining a round wire. They have a cross-section and Infact the Niti with the plied to all the instruments: infact there are ProFile 29 smaller size are more fragile, have a core design that reamers and ProFile 29 Hedstroem etc.
Available 1. Tip of a 25 Flex-R Union-Broach x Photograph of the bo- Fig. Photograph of dy of the same instrument x Available in steel and nickel their structural fragility. The SenseusTM, www. Tip of a 50 Triple-Flex Kerrdental x Photograph of the same instrument x They are for initial canal negotiation and have a decreasing taper of the blade from the tip whe- re it is about. The extra-large silicone handle gives the operator the deformation strength even when subjected to rela- greater working comfort, improved torque and force transmis- tively high pressure or torsion.
The Senseus range. C Fig. X-Ray visible calibration rings help improve clinical per- formance during endodontic procedures Courtesy of Dentsply Fig. Ballaigues, Switzerland. The Senseus FlexoFiles, with the exception of the The Senseus FlexoReamers have the same cha- grip, have the same characteristics as the Standard racteristics as the Standard FlexoReamers, just like FlexoFiles and like these are obtained by torsion of these they are obtained by torsion of a triangular a steel wire with a triangular cross-section.
The Senseus Hedstroem have blades that are iden- 2. Like the Standard wire with a triangular or quadrangular cross-section. Hedstroem Files, the Senseus Hedstroem are available Compared to K-Files the reamers have less spirals per in three lengths 21, 25 and 31 mm and have ISO dia- mm about half and a more acute blade cutting angle meters from 06 to Fig. The cutting ac- tion takes place during the withdrawal phase. This movement is repeated a number of times without ever forcing the instruments during their insertion but en- gaging the dentine during rotation and removal from the canal.
A rotation exceeding half a turn is not advi- A sable as it could cause engagement and fracture insi- de the canal. The necessity for rotation in the canal con- tra-indicates the use of reamers for initial exploration fracture risk and in the preparation of curved canals risk of lacerating the apical foramen.
The tip of a 20 reamer Dentsply Maillefer x Photograph of the body of the same reamer x The Reamers, due to the reduced number of spirals 2. The K-Reamers www. The Farside www. The K-Flexoreamers www. Tip of a 40 Flexoreamer Dentsply Maillefer x Photograph They are available in ISO diameters 06, 08, 10 and 15 with The Hedstroem Files or H Files are obtained by mi- lengths from 15 to 18 mm, characterized by a particu- crogrinding a conical steel or NiTi wire with a round larly short shaft that increases the resistance against cross-section Fig The cutting angle of the deformation during the initial exploration.
This is due to Farside as regards length and blade design, with the dif- the fact that the deep grinding of the surface has re- ference that the Deepstar are only available is ISO dia- duced the central mass of metal which determines the meters 20 to The Deepstar are indicated in retreat- torsional strength of the instument. The ProFile Series 29 Reamers www. The ProFile round cross-section in steel or NiTi. Tip of a 40 Deepstar Dentsply Maillefer x Photograph of Fig. Body the body of the same instrument x The MC Instruments www.
Barbed broach. If the instrument engages. The Micro-Debriders www. Micro-Debriders Dentsply Maillefer. Excessively deep placement of the instrument can cause the hooks to bend in towards the shaft of the in- strument. On withdrawl the broaches engage the den- tine and bend outwards in which case fracture usual- ly occurs of the instrument.
For this reason Barbed Broaches are considered di- sposable to be used only once and should be used with the utmost caution and where there is a true indi- cation: large and straight canals. Depending on the case, the most suitable size broach should be selected: too small will Fig.
Coarse barbed broach x The same instrument viewed by S.
Endodontie Clinica Si Practica GAFAR ILIESCU
Endodontie (vol.2 cap.13-27) - Arnaldo Castellucci