Replacement of alfalfa hay Medicago sativa with maralfalfa hay Pennisetum sp. Criscioni P. Animal Feed Science and Technology Year: The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa Medicago sativa with maralfalfa Pennisetum sp. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation
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Elephant grass silages with or without wilting, with cassava meal in silage production. The experiment was developed to evaluate the effects of wilting and inclusion of cassava meal level on nutritive value, fermentative characteristics and losses of elephant grass silage.
The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely randomized design. The factors evaluated were wilting without and with and cassava meal level 0; 7. PVC silos with 50 cm height and 10 cm diameter were used for silages production, which were opened after 60 days. The wilting and cassava meal addition had increasing linear effect on DM content. Silages with cassava meal showed reduction of total nitrogen, ether extract, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber ash and protein free, acid detergent fiber, celluloses, hemicelluloses and lignin contents and increase of organic matter content, DM in vitro digestibility and total digestible nutrients.
Concerning to ammonia nitrogen, it was observed quadratic and decreasing linear behavior for silages without and with wilting, respectively. Wilting and cassava meal inclusion provided smaller effluent losses. Key words: by-product; bromatologic composition; effluent; digestibility; Pennisetum purpureum. The limitations of elephant grass silage may be partially controlled by increasing the DM percentage of the grass by both wilting and the application of moisture absorbers OLIVEIRA et al.
From a practical point of view, wilting is only viable in areas where grass harvesting can not be mechanized as in small properties or in areas with irregular topography.
Regarding the use of absorber additives in grass silages, the dehydrated by-products of the cassava processing present characteristics that can benefit the final quality of the silage, due to their high DM content, which could contribute to the elevation of the silage DM and, as a consequence, would reduce the losses of nutritive value by effluent.
Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritive value, fermentative characteristics and losses by gas and effluents from elephant grass silage with and without wilting, with increasing levels of cassava meal. The elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum , Schum. The experiment was performed in a completely randomized design, with a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four levels of cassava meal 0; 7. The meal is originated from the material discarded from the cloths or deposition channels of the starch milk from the washing of the ground cassava.
The material was cut in a regulated ensiling into pieces of approximately 2 cm. In the wilting process, the grass was harvested and scattered in the field and, after 8 hours of sun exposure, was cut and added to the cassava meal and ensiling. The cassava meal without wilting was incorporated after the grass cutting, and the proportion was added based on the natural matter of the grass.
The chemical-bromatological composition of the cassava meal CM and of the elephant grass, with and without wilting can be observed in Table 1. After mixing the amount of cassava meal, the material was stored for 60 days in PVC silos, 50 cm high and 10 cm of diameter, with Bunsen valve to release the gases from the fermentation. One kilo of sand was placed at the bottom of each silo, separated from the forage by a thin plastic cover to capture the effluent from the forage silage. The silages losses in the form of gases and effluent and dry matter recovery were quantified by weight difference, through equations adapted from Santos et al Effluent losses were calculated by the equation below, based on the difference on weight of the sand and related to the mass of fresh matter CM at sealing:.
After the period of 60 days, the silos were opened, and samples were collected and frozen for further analysis. Part of the silage in natura 50g was triturated with mL of water in an industrial blender and gauze filtered to extract the aqueous medium, which was used for analysis of ammoniacal nitrogen N-NH 3 and pH.
The N-NH3 content, as a percentage of total N, was measured using magnesium oxide and calcium chloride, according to Cunniff The data were interpreted through analysis of variance, regression study by orthogonal polynomials for the quantitative factor, referring to the levels of cassava meal added in elephant grass silage, and application of F test to the qualitative factor, referring to wilting with and without wilting , and the evaluation of possible interactions between these factors.
In the regression study using orthogonal polynomials, the significance, the coefficients of determination and the behavior observed for the variable were considered. The DM contents of the silages were increased by 0.
The linear increase of DM with the addition of cassava meal is due to the higher DM content of the by-product in relation to elephant grass. Andrade et al. The DM values found in the wilting silages ranged from The addition of cassava meal increased OM values linearly, adding 0. This behavior can be explained by the low contents of ash cassava meal 1. Maza et al. Regarding the wilting silage over the levels of cassava meal, a reduction of 0.
This behavior was already expected, due to the low CP values of cassava meal 2. These results corroborrate with those obtained by Zanine et al. It is known that the TN content of the ruminant diet has an effect on the production of microbial protein in the rumen. Considering the values observed in this study, the silages presented levels of TN in the limit to guarantee microbial synthesis, therefore, caution is recommended in the use of silages as exclusive food in animals of high nutritional requirement.
The NIND content presented a mean of 0. With respect to NIAD contents as a function of cassava meal levels, the regression analysis revealed, for non-wilting silage, a linear decreasing behavior of 0. With respect to wilting silage, a quadratic behavior was observed, with a minimum point of 0. It is estimated increments of 0.
Considering only the levels of inclusion of cassava meal in elephant grass, the IVDMD of the silages presented, through the regression analysis, increasing linear behavior, being attributed an increase of 0. Evaluating the wilting effect within the levels of manioc cassava meal, lower values of NDF and CP were observed in the non-wilted silages, with 15 and The contents of these fibrous constituents decreased linearly in both silages, with the addition of increasing levels of cassava meal Table 3.
Reductions of 1. There was significant interaction for cellulose. Regarding cellulose contents as a function of cassava meal levels, the regression analysis revealed, for silage without wilting, quadratic behavior, estimating a minimum value of For wilting silage, a linear decreasing behavior was observed, estimating reductions of 0. As hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin are constituent of the NDF, reductions of these fractions in the silages were already expected, due to the decreasing behavior of the NDF with the increase of cassava meal levels.
Similar to the results obtained in this study, Silva et al. The addition of increasing levels of cassava meal linearly decreased the values of the aforementioned variables Table 3. It can be inferred that the reduction in the moisture content of elephant grass concentrated the soluble carbohydrates and increased the osmolarity of the silage that probably promoted reduction in the buffer capacity and accentuated the pH drop TAVARES et al.
Analyzing the pH in function of the levels of cassava meal, it was observed a quadratic behavior for both silages. For the silage without wilting, a minimum value of 3. For the silage with wilting, the estimated minimum value was 3. When analyzing the N-NH3 over the levels of cassava meal, regression analysis revealed a quadratic and linear behavior for the silages with and without wilting, respectively, estimating a minimum value of 2.
For the silage with wilting, a decrease of 0. Evaluating the wilting effect within cassava meal levels, higher losses of DM by gases were observed in the silages without wilting Table 5. In the study of the effect of cassava meal levels on the losses of DM by gases, an increasing linear behavior was observed for the silages with and without wilting, estimating additions of 0.
Increasing the availability of carbohydrates to microorganisms with the inclusion of cassava meal was probably the factor that led to an increase in losses MUCK et al. According to McDonald et al. Regarding the effect of cassava meal levels on effluent losses, the regression analysis revealed a quadratic effect, estimating a minimum value of These results allow to infer that the additive used allowed to reduce the losses by effluents, which is explained by the absorbent characteristic Zanine et al.
The silage effluent contains large amounts of organic compounds, such as sugars, organic acids and proteins, leading to significant losses of nutritive value McDONALD et al. Through the regression analysis, studying the recovery of DM for the silages without wilting, it was observed that it was not influenced by the levels of cassava meal, with a mean value of Regarding silage with wilting, there is an increasing linear behavior with the increase of cassava meal levels, estimating increases of 0.
Considering that the higher gas and effluent referred to silage with wilting, probably this fact explains the lower rates of MS recovery of the aforementioned silages.
Concerning the silage with wilting, it can be verified that the addition of cassava meal provided higher DM recovery rates,. In situations where the practice of wilting is viable, it should be adopted since it proides silages with higher DM and CP contents and better fermentative characteristics.
The addition of CM to the elephant grass with or without wilting up to the dosage of Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , v. BACH, A. Nitrogen Metabolism in the Rumen.
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Silage effluent management: A review. Journal of Environmental Management , v. Bioscince Journal , v. JUNG, H. Characteristics of plant cell walls affecting intake and digestibility of forages by ruminants.
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MAZA, A. Revista Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia , v. The biochemistry of silage. Marlow: Chalcombe Publications, MUCK, R.
Silage microbiology and its control through additives. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.
Frfa Maralfalfa Pennisetum Purpureum Sur Sonora 2013
Elephant grass silages with or without wilting, with cassava meal in silage production. The experiment was developed to evaluate the effects of wilting and inclusion of cassava meal level on nutritive value, fermentative characteristics and losses of elephant grass silage. The 4 x 2 factorial scheme was adopted, with four repetitions, in a completely randomized design. The factors evaluated were wilting without and with and cassava meal level 0; 7. PVC silos with 50 cm height and 10 cm diameter were used for silages production, which were opened after 60 days.
Nutritional and fermentative characteristics of Cameroon grass silage with Pelipita banana
Embed Size px x x x x Fernando Roberto Feuchter Astiazarn. Obregn Sonora, Mxico C. El origen de la maralfalfa como cultivar o variedad es incierto, ya que puede ser de origen africano. Pennisetum violaceum Lam. Ex Pers sin que las hojas necesariamente sean lilas, o ser un hbrido. Esta variabilidad gentica dificulta la.
EVALUACIÓN DEL ENSILAJE DEL PASTO RATANA (Ischaemum indicum HOUTT.) CON TRES DIFERENTES ADITIVOS
DOI The objective of this research was to determine the nutritional and fermentative characteristics of Cameroon grass silage with replacement of immature Pelipita banana fruit Musa ABB. Each treatment had five replicates. The blends were stored for sixty days in 5 kg bags. Treatments that used immature fruit presented higher values of pH and ammonia nitrogen, than treatments that used molasses, treatments that used immature fruit also showed higher concentrations of non-fibrous carbohydrates and energy. However, in all treatments where the fruit was used, the concentration of the fiber components and the digestibility of the neutral detergent fiber were reduced, due to an increase in lignin concentration. The ensiled materials had the potential to produce 1.
Manual Pastos Tropicales
Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Key words: lignocellulosic ethanol; hemicelluloses; cellulose. Genomic homeology between Pennisetum purpureum and Pennisetum glaucum Poaceae. The study of genomic relationships provides subsidies for the knowledge about phylogenetic relations and evolution, and is useful in breeding programs seeking gene introgression. Concerning elephant grass and pearl millet, the homeology between the genomes A and A', and between these and the genome B, has been reported by conventional cytogenetic techniques. The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the degree of homeology between these genomes by means of genomic in situ hybridization GISH. The results confirmed the homeology between the genomes A of pearl millet and A'B of elephant grass, and showed that there are differences in the distribution and proportion of homologous regions after hybridization.