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Background: Paralysis or amputation of an arm results in the loss of the ability to orient the hand and grasp, manipulate, and carry objects, functions that are essential for activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces could provide a solution to restoring many of these lost functions. We therefore tested whether an individual with tetraplegia could rapidly achieve neurological control of a high-performance prosthetic limb using this type of an interface.
Methods: We implanted two channel intracortical microelectrodes in the motor cortex of a year-old individual with tetraplegia. Brain-machine-interface training was done for 13 weeks with the goal of controlling an anthropomorphic prosthetic limb with seven degrees of freedom three-dimensional translation, three-dimensional orientation, one-dimensional grasping.
The participant's ability to control the prosthetic limb was assessed with clinical measures of upper limb function. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials. Findings: The participant was able to move the prosthetic limb freely in the three-dimensional workspace on the second day of training.
After 13 weeks, robust seven-dimensional movements were performed routinely. The participant was also able to use the prosthetic limb to do skilful and coordinated reach and grasp movements that resulted in clinically significant gains in tests of upper limb function.
No adverse events were reported. Interpretation: With continued development of neuroprosthetic limbs, individuals with long-term paralysis could recover the natural and intuitive command signals for hand placement, orientation, and reaching, allowing them to perform activities of daily living. Conflict of interest statement. MV and AS have a patent application pending that covers some of the methodology used in this study. We declare that we have no other conflicts of interest.
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Save Cancel. Create a file for external citation management software Create file Cancel. Full-text links Cite Favorites. Abstract Background: Paralysis or amputation of an arm results in the loss of the ability to orient the hand and grasp, manipulate, and carry objects, functions that are essential for activities of daily living. Conflict of interest statement Conflict of interest statement MV and AS have a patent application pending that covers some of the methodology used in this study.
Figures Figure 1. Array location and experiment setup. Figure 1. Array location and experiment setup 8 A Pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI activation…. A Pre-operative functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI activation maps on a subject-specific brain model during video-guided attempted movement.
Approximate array locations are shown as black squares on the inset figure. The arrays were implanted over motor cortex anterior to the central sulcus CS approximately 14 mm apart.
The subject was not presented with physical targets. Orientation and grasp targets were presented by a computer-generated verbal command. The MPL coordinate system is shown centered at the shoulder. Translation targets had an 8 cm radius and the MPL endpoint center of the palm had to be within this region for a successful trial. The time-out period was set to 10 seconds. Figure 2. Number of units over time. Number of units over time 8 The top set of data points blue dots ….
The top set of data points blue dots indicates the number of units recorded during BMI sessions conducted 10—98 days post-implant. The bottom set of data points red squares indicates the number of units tuned to movement velocity Eq.
For reference, 4D training began on Day 24 and 7D training began on Day Figure 3. Summary of 7D brain-control performance. Blocks that the subject performed with various levels of ortho-impedance or stabilizing assist are shown as open circles and squares respectively. After Day 66 post-implant, all reported performance data were collected using full brain-control with no computer assistance.
B Normalized performance index for each day of 7D brain control. For each block of 20 trials, the success rate was normalized to the median chance level.
For subplots C-E, each dot represents the mean block time or path efficiency for one block of 20 trials of the 7D sequence task completed by the participant. The mean block time or path efficiency of the MPL under auto-control is shown as a solid horizontal black line. E The greatest improvement in path efficiency occurred in the translation dimensions.
Only successful trials were included in the calculation of path efficiency. For all equations, x is the number of days post-implant. MPL position, orientation, and grasp…. A thick black horizontal bar denotes whether a translation, orientation, or grasp target was being attempted although the participant had control of all 7 dimensions at all times. Each new translation target indicates the start of a new trial, which is also marked with an arrow along the time axis.
MPL kinematics as controlled by the participant are shown as solid lines. The target position for each dimension is shown as a dotted line. Grey shaded regions indicate presentation phases in which the MPL was paused and the subject was listening to a computer-generated verbal command. A grasp aperture of 1 indicates that the hand was fully closed. The participant was successful in maintaining position in one control domain while changing position in another, as instructed.
Figure 5. Changes in neural tuning over…. Changes in neural tuning over time 7 A Fraction of units whose firing rate…. Each dot represents data from a single decoder. On a single day decoders were trained using observation data and brain-control data with ortho-impedance. Each bar is centered between the upper and lower bound of R 2 values for a given bin.
See this image and copyright information in PMC. Comment in Brain-machine interface: closer to therapeutic reality? Courtine G, et al. Epub Dec PMID: No abstract available. Neural repair and rehabilitation: Achieving complex control of a neuroprosthetic arm. Wood H. Nat Rev Neurol. Epub Jan Neuroprosthetic control and tetraplegia.
High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Schwartz Published Medicine The Lancet. The participant's ability to control the prosthetic limb… Expand Abstract.
High-performance Neuroprosthetic Control by an Individual With Tetraplegia
Background: Paralysis or amputation of an arm results in the loss of the ability to orient the hand and grasp, manipulate, and carry objects, functions that are essential for activities of daily living. Brain-machine interfaces could provide a solution to restoring many of these lost functions. We therefore tested whether an individual with tetraplegia could rapidly achieve neurological control of a high-performance prosthetic limb using this type of an interface. Methods: We implanted two channel intracortical microelectrodes in the motor cortex of a year-old individual with tetraplegia.
Woman with quadriplegia feeds herself chocolate using mind-controlled robot arm (w/video)
For Jan Scheuermann and a team of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and UPMC, accomplishing these seemingly ordinary tasks demonstrated for the first time that a person with longstanding quadriplegia can maneuver a mind-controlled, human-like robot arm in seven dimensions 7D to consistently perform many of the natural and complex motions of everyday life. Jan Scheuermann, who has quadriplegia, brings a chocolate bar to her mouth using a robot arm she is guiding with her thoughts. Researcher Elke Brown, M. In a study published in the online version of The Lancet "High-performance neuroprosthetic control by an individual with tetraplegia" , the researchers described the brain-computer interface BCI technology and training programs that allowed Ms.