The authors examined maternal ego development in relation to psychopathology and parenting problems in a sample of substance abusing mothers. Given predilections at higher levels of ego development for introspection and guilt, the authors expected mothers at higher levels to report more psychopathology. Given predilections at lower levels of ego development for dichotomous perceptions and limited conceptions of causation, the authors expected mothers at low levels to report more problematic parenting behaviors. Intelligence was expected to correlate but not overlap with ego development. Subjects were mothers who expressed interest in a randomized clinical trial for a new parenting intervention. Results of correlation and multivariate analyses of variance confirmed predictions.
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Jane Loevinger was born on February 6, in St. Paul, Minnesota. She was the third of five children. Her father, Gustavus Loevinger, was a German immigrant who worked as a lawyer and became a court judge in Her mother, Millie Strause, was a part-time school teacher and a pianist. Loevinger described her family as lively, formal, and competitive. Academically, Loevinger often outperformed her fellow students and she described feeling like an outsider at school. She enrolled at the University of Minnesota for her undergraduate studies in psychology where a vocational counselor told her that psychology was "too mathematical" for her.
She earned her Master's Degree in psychometrics in from the University of Minnesota. She then enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley for her doctoral studies. She was a research assistant for Erik Erikson. In , she completed her doctoral thesis on " Construction and Evaluation of Tests of Ability" in which she criticized psychometric theories and test reliabilities.
In , Loevinger received her Ph. She later joined her husband at Los Alamos, New Mexico to work as a scientist and to take part in the Hitler's atomic bomb project in order to establish the weapon design component of the Manhattan Project and to develop the atomic bomb. She then gave birth to her first child Judith, and she did not return to work. She gave birth to their second child, Micheal Benjamin shortly before the second bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
After the war, employment opportunities for women dropped dramatically and Loevinger worked occasionally at Washington University as a part-time psychology teacher and a research assistant after moving to St. Louis for her husband to take a job. She described those days as "dark days" when she felt the sexist prejudice from departments that expected her to leave her job, to stay home and to be a "good wife and mother.
After moving to St. Louis, Loevinger left her work at the Air Force and her other part-time jobs such as some part-time teaching for the psychology department in order to do a research on women's experience and she was one of the first psychologists to focus on the problems facing women and mothers in her research. She worked with a group of women-some mothers- in her research and she obtained funding from the National Institute of Mental Health.
Loevinger and some of her students eventually published the Washington University Sentence Completion Test which later was expanded to assess ego development and moral understanding. Loevinger and her achievements were recognized by the psychology department at Washington University and she was appointed research associate in psychology in In , she obtained a position as a full-time professor and in , she became professor emeritus, during which time she continued her research and professional activities.
Jane Loevinger was a distinguished researcher who is well known for her work on the psychology of ego development. This work resulted in many publications, including Measuring Ego Development , published in Loevinger died unexpectedly on January 4, at the age of Ernhart, C. Authoritarian family ideology: A measure, its correlates, and its robustness. Loevinger, J. The technic of homogeneous tests compared with some aspects of scale analysis and factor analysis.
Psychological Bulletin, 45, Objective tests as instruments of psychological theory. Psychological Reports, 3 , Measuring ego development: 1. Construction and use of a sentence completion test. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Measuring ego development: 2. Scoring manual for women and girls. Technical foundations for measuring ego development: The Washington University sentence completion test. Washington: Mahwah Publications. Loevinger, Ed. Jane Loevinger. In O'Connell, A.
Models of achievement: Reflections of eminent women in psychology, vol. Confessions of an iconoclast: At home on the fringe. The Journal of Personality Assessment, 78 2 , Hy, L. Measuring ego development. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. San Fransciso: Jossey-Bass. Ego development. Paradigms of personality.
New York: Freeman. Randy, L. American Psychologist, 63,
Loevinger's stages of ego development are proposed by developmental psychologist Jane Loevinger and conceptualize a theory based on Erik Erikson 's psychosocial model and the works of Harry Stack Sullivan in which "the ego was theorized to mature and evolve through stages across the lifespan as a result of a dynamic interaction between the inner self and the outer environment". Loevinger conceived of an ego-development system which closely resembles moral development , but is broader in scope and uses empirical methods of study. These women tended to agree with such statements as "[a] mother should be her daughter's best friend", at the same time endorsing punitive behavior. She also observed that a liberal, non-authoritarian personality was not the opposite of a high authoritarian personality; anomie a disorganized and detached social style was the opposite of high authoritarianism, indicating a curvilinear relationship. Loevinger theorized that this was because the Authoritarian Family Ideology scale measured just authoritarianism , but a broader concept which affected the other constructs she measured.
Loevinger's stages of ego development
Jane Loevinger was born on February 6, in St. Paul, Minnesota. She was the third of five children. Her father, Gustavus Loevinger, was a German immigrant who worked as a lawyer and became a court judge in Her mother, Millie Strause, was a part-time school teacher and a pianist. Loevinger described her family as lively, formal, and competitive. Academically, Loevinger often outperformed her fellow students and she described feeling like an outsider at school.
Ego Development, Psychopathology, and Parenting Problems in Substance-Abusing Mothers
Jane Loevinger was an American psychologist working in the 20th century who focused on the idea of ego development across the lifespan. These stages include:. There may be an intermingling of different states of consciousness. This page was brought to you by Thomas Armstrong, Ph. His ideal is of a morally rigid and unchanging world of rules and norms that specifies how he is to act.
The Stages of Ego Development According to Jane Loevinger