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Van Zoonen believes the media portray images of stereotypical women and this behaviour reinforces societal views. The media does this because they believe it reflects dominant social values what people believe in and male producers are influenced by this.
This is a patriarchy a society ran by men for men which dominates and oppresses women. And in this the mass media play a crucial role in socialisation in teaching us how to behave and think in ways that our culture finds acceptable.
A significant part of this socialisation process is to provide answers to questions like: What does it mean to be a woman? Of course these questions are not always exactly the same but we are all familiar with the kind of gender stereotypes so often reinforced by media representations. It is essentially a reformist approach , which tends to see more equal gender relations being brought about by equal opportunities policies and affirmative action programs.
It does not appear to question the power dimensions in society that maintain male superiority of status and female inferiority. Instead it concentrates on sex role stereotypes, prescriptions of sex-appropriate behaviours, appearance, interests, skills and self-perceptions Van Zoonen, This NY Times article explains how women are still marginalised and stereotyped in films.
Numerous quantitative content analysis have shown that women hardly appeared in the mass media, but it depicted as wife, mother, daughter, girlfriend; as working in traditionally female jobs secretary, nurse, receptionist ; or as sex-object. Moreover they are usually young and beautiful, but not very well educated Gallagher, It is thought that media perpetuate sex role stereotypes because they reflect dominant social values and also because male media producers are influenced by these stereotypes.
However the landscape of gender representation in the media has changed enormously over the last thirty years. Today men and women are portrayed as working side by side in such settings as hospitals, schools and police stations. Radical feminists have been in the forefront of exposing male abuse of women and politicizing issues formerly considered as private, such as domestic abuse and more recently, sex tourism and trafficking in women. Few media studies have been conducted from a radical perspective.
Van Zoonen believes the media strategies of radical feminism are straightforward: women should create their own means of communication and try to free themselves completely women have to cut off all ties with men and male society. Mass media are in the hands of male owners and producers , they will operate to the benefit of a patriarchal society.
Radical media strategies have been more problematic than they seemed at first sight: the belief that women together- —— all innately good people- —would be able to work without competition, hierarchy or specialization, and would write or film from the same source or essential femininity, proved illusion.
Kessler , Power differences, differences of opinion and interests appear to exist among women also, and are not male preserve.
There is a list below of the type of stereotypical presentations Van Zoonen believes exists in the media:. Find a depiction of a woman and look at the media language and language!
Blog at WordPress. Van Zoonen — feminism and patriarchy. Gender is performative — our ideas of femininity and masculinity are constructed in our performances of these roles.
Moreover, gender is contextual — its meaning changes with cultural and historical contexts. Van Zoonen disagrees with arguments that the internet, being based on collaboration, is a technology that is true and close to women and femininity. These views are too simple and based on the idea of an essential femininity, whereas there is a rich diversity of ways that gender is articulated on the internet. What is the theory? What is the more advanced version? Feminism can be approached in three ways: liberal, socialist not covered or radical.
Liberal Feminism It is essentially a reformist approach , which tends to see more equal gender relations being brought about by equal opportunities policies and affirmative action programs. It does not appear to question the power dimensions in society that maintain male superiority of status and female inferiority Instead it concentrates on sex role stereotypes, prescriptions of sex-appropriate behaviours, appearance, interests, skills and self-perceptions Van Zoonen, Task There is a list below of the type of stereotypical presentations Van Zoonen believes exists in the media: Try completing this chart by writing the opposite word where the question mark is.
Feminist Media Studies
The text initially outlines some major themes in feminist media studies and the ways in which they offer specific models for understanding the media. The author goes on to examine the key questions posed by a gendered approach within communication and cultural studies. Issues explored include: theories of transmission, representation, construction and discourse; the structures of media organization and production; the analysis of media representations through content analysis and semiotics; the contradictions of the gendered image as spectacle; new approaches to understanding the audience and the politics of media reception; and the potential of feminist and interpretive research strategies. Feminist Media Studies. Liesbet van Zoonen.
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