Introduction The Transcultural Nursing Society, founded in , Members are active in consultation, teaching, research, direct care and in policymaking in national and transnational arenas TCN Website, www. Leininger, credited with saying, Caring is the essence of nursing, established the Caring Conferences in as a forum for nurse scholars interested in advancing caring knowledge to gather for formal presentations, informal dialogue, and to evolve research related to caring sciences. All this began in the s, when Madeleine Leininger became fascinated with anthropology, finding many concepts she believed were pertinent to nursing. She became the first professional nurse to receive a PhD in cultural and social anthropology, and her vision of the blending of two fields, nursing and anthropology, led to her Culture Care Diversity and Universality: A Worldwide Theory of Nursing. As the mother of transcultural nursing and founder of the Transcultural Nursing Society, she has advanced transcultural nursing through education, research, administration, and practice.

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Her theory is now a nursing discipline that is an integral part of how nurses practice in the healthcare field today. Madeleine Leininger was born on July 13, in Sutton, Nebraska. She lived in a farm with her four brothers and sisters, and graduated from Sutton High School.

After graduation from Sutton High she was in the U. Army Nursing Corps while pursuing a basic nursing program. It was due to her aunt who suffered from congenital heart disease that led her to pursue a career in nursing.

In , Madeleine Leininger, together with her sister, entered the Cadet Nurse Corps which is a federally-funded program to increase the numbers of nurses being trained to meet anticipated needs during World War II. She earned a nursing diploma from St. Scholastica College and Creighton University. Leininger opened a psychiatric nursing service and educational program at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska.

She earned the equivalent of a BSN through her studies in biological sciences, nursing administration, teaching and curriculum during And in , Leininger embarked upon a doctoral program in Cultural and Social Anthropology at the University of Washington in Seattle and became the first professional nurse to earn a PhD in anthropology. She identified a lack of cultural and care knowledge as the missing link to nursing.

She also studied in this university, pursuing further graduate studies in curriculum, social sciences and nursing. Leininger was appointed Professor of Nursing and Anthropology at the University of Colorado — the first joint appointment of a professor of nursing and a second discipline in the United States.

As for being a pioneer nurse anthropologist, Leininger was appointed Dean of the University of Washington, School of Nursing in , and remained in that position until In , under her leadership, the University of Washington was recognized as the outstanding public institutional school of nursing in the United States.

She was the first full-time President of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and one of the first members of the American Academy of Nursing in With these, she has developed the Sunrise Model in a logical order to demonstrate the interrelationships of the concepts in her theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality. Leininger has written and edited 27 books and founded the Journal of Transcultural Nursing to support the research of the Transcultural Nursing Society, which she started in She published over articles and book chapters, produced numerous audio and video recordings, and developed a software program.

She has also given over keynote and public lectures in US and around the world. She also established the Journal of Transcultural Nursing and served as editor from to She also initiated and promoted worldwide certification of transcultural nurses CTN for client safety and knowledgeable care for people of diverse cultures.

Her web pages now reside on a discussion board. Leininger has provided downloads and answers to many common questions. Board users are encouraged to post questions to her discussion board about transcultural nursing, her theory, and her research. During her time, Leininger enjoys helping students and she responds to questions as her time permits. In , Leininger was awarded a National League of Nursing Fellowship for fieldwork in the Eastern Highlands of New Guinea, where she studied the convergence and divergence of human behavior in two Gadsup villages.

The Leininger Transcultural Nursing Award was established in to recognize outstanding and creative leaders in transcultural nursing. On August 10th, , Leininger passed away at her home in Omaha, Nebraska. The Transcultural Nursing Theory or Culture Care Theory by Madeleine Leininger involves knowing and understanding different cultures with respect to nursing and health-illness caring practices, beliefs and values with the goal to provide meaningful and efficacious nursing care services to people according to their cultural values and health-illness context.

It focuses on the fact that different cultures have different caring behaviors and different health and illness values, beliefs, and patterns of behaviors.

The cultural care worldview flows into knowledge about individuals, families, groups, communities, and institutions in diverse health care systems. This knowledge provides culturally specific meanings and expressions in relation to care and health. The next focus is on the generic or folk system, professional care system s , and nursing care.

Information about these systems includes the characteristics and the specific care features of each. This information allows for the identification of similarities and differences or cultural care universality and cultural care diversity. It is here that nursing care is delivered. The theory was further developed in her book Transcultural Nursing, which was published in In the third edition of Transcultural Nursing, published in , the theory-based research and the application of the Transcultural theory are explained.

This is the study of nursing care beliefs, values, and practices as cognitively perceived and known by a designated culture through their direct experience, beliefs, and value system Leininger, Nursing is defined as a learned humanistic and scientific profession and discipline which is focused on human care phenomena and activities in order to assist, support, facilitate, or enable individuals or groups to maintain or regain their well-being or health in culturally meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help people face handicaps or death.

Such are believed to be caring and to be capable of being concerned about the needs, well-being, and survival of others. Leininger also indicates that nursing as a caring science should focus beyond traditional nurse-patient interactions and dyads to include families, groups, communities, total cultures, and institutions.

These terms are not defined by Leininger; she speaks instead of worldview, social structure, and environmental context. Culture is the learned, shared and transmitted values, beliefs, norms, and lifeways of a particular group that guides their thinking, decisions, and actions in patterned ways. Culture care universality indicates the common, similar, or dominant uniform care meanings, pattern, values, lifeways or symbols that are manifest among many cultures and reflect assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling ways to help people.

Leininger, The following are the subconcepts of the Transcultural Nursing Theory of Madeleine Leininger and their definitions:. Generic folk or lay care systems are culturally learned and transmitted, indigenous or traditional , folk home-based knowledge and skills used to provide assistive, supportive, enabling, or facilitative acts toward or for another individual, group, or institution with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve a human life way, health condition or well-being , or to deal with handicaps and death situations.

Knowledge gained from direct experience or directly from those who have experienced. It is generic or folk knowledge. Professional care systems are defined as formally taught, learned, and transmitted professional care, health, illness, wellness, and related knowledge and practice skills that prevail in professional institutions usually with multidisciplinary personnel to serve consumers.

Ethnohistory includes those past facts, events, instances, experiences of individuals, groups, cultures, and instructions that are primarily people-centered ethno and which describe, explain, and interpret human lifeways within particular cultural contexts and over short or long periods of time. Care as a noun is defined as those abstract and concrete phenomena related to assisting, supporting, or enabling experiences or behaviors toward or for others with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve a human condition or lifeway.

Care as a verb is defined as actions and activities directed toward assisting, supporting, or enabling another individual or group with evident or anticipated needs to ameliorate or improve a human condition or lifeway or to face death. Culture shock may result when an outsider attempts to comprehend or adapt effectively to a different cultural group. The outsider is likely to experience feelings of discomfort and helplessness and some degree of disorientation because of the differences in cultural values, beliefs, and practices.

Culture shock may lead to anger and can be reduced by seeking knowledge of the culture before encountering that culture. Cultural imposition refers to efforts of the outsider, both subtle and not so subtle, to impose his or her own cultural values, beliefs, behaviors upon an individual, family, or group from another culture.

The Sunrise Model is relevant because it enables nurses to develop critical and complex thoughts towards nursing practice. These thoughts should consider, and integrate, cultural and social structure dimensions in each specific context, besides the biological and psychological aspects involved in nursing care. The next focus is on the generic or folk system, professional care systems, and nursing care. Next are nursing care decisions and actions which involve cultural care preservation or maintenance, cultural care accommodation or negotiation and cultural care repatterning or restructuring.

Cultural care accommodation also known as negotiation, includes those assistive, supportive, facilitative, or enabling creative professional actions and decisions that help people of a designated culture to adapt to or negotiate with others for a beneficial or satisfying health outcome with professional care providers. Culture care repatterning or restructuring includes those assistive, supporting, facilitative, or enabling professional actions and decisions that help a clients reorder, change, or greatly modify their lifeways for new, different, and beneficial health care pattern while respecting the clients cultural values and beliefs and still providing a beneficial or healthier lifeway than before the changes were coestablished with the clients.

It was stated that the nurse will help the client move towards amelioration or improvement of their health practice or condition. Culture is a strong set of practices developed over generations which would make it difficult to penetrate. The whole activity of immersing yourself within a different culture is time-consuming for you to fully understand their beliefs and practices. Another is that it would be costly in the part of the nurse. Because of its financial constraints and unclear ways of being financially compensated, it can be the reason why nurses do not engage much with this kind of nursing approach.

It is highly commendable that Leininger was able to formulate a theory which is specified to a multicultural aspect of care. On the other side, too much was given to the culture concept per se that Leininger failed to comprehensively discuss the functions or roles of nurses. It was not stated on how to assist, support or enable the client to attuning them to an improved lifeway.

According to transcultural nursing, the goal of nursing care is to provide care congruent with cultural values, beliefs, and practices. Cultural knowledge plays a very important role for nurses on how to deal with the patients. Finally, using cultural knowledge to treat a patient also helps a nurse to be open-minded to treatments that can be considered non-traditional, such as spiritually based therapies like meditation and anointing.

With these, awareness of the differences allows the nurse to design culture-specific nursing interventions. Since we started in , Nurseslabs has become one of the most trusted nursing sites helping thousands of aspiring nurses achieve their goals. Our ultimate goal is to help address the nursing shortage by inspiring aspiring nurses that a career in nursing is an excellent choice, guiding students to become RNs, and for the working nurse — helping them achieve success in their careers!

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Madeleine Leininger

First published in , her contributions to nursing theory involve the discussion of what it is to care. Leininger was born on 13 July She earned a nursing diploma from St. She later studied cultural and social anthropology at the University of Washington, earning a PhD in


Madeleine M. Leininger, 1925-2012

Powered by Campus Explorer. Madeleine Leininger was a remarkable woman who was one of the early nursing theorists and the first to introduce the concept of transcultural nursing. She also introduced the discussion of what it means to care. As the middle child of five, she had two older sisters and two younger brothers. Her father was a farmer and her mother was a homemaker.

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