Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak alang-alang Imperata cylindrica , teki Cyperus rotundus , dan babadotan Ageratum conyzoides terhadap pertumbuhan dan sporulasi Colletotrichum musae. Penelitian juga bertujuan mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak alang-alang, teki dan babadotan terhadap keparahan penyakit antraknosa secara in vivo. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Soft rot disease is one of the constraints of Aloe cultivation on peat soil.
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Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. International audience; Dickeya dadantii syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Insecta: Hemiptera.
The infection route of the pathogen , and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the Plant Pathogenicity in Spaceflight Environments. Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses, which may promote microbial growth and result in pathogenicity to the plant.
Understanding the cause of such microbial contamination and methods to eliminate it are necessary prerequisites for continued plant growth and development studies Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. Full Text Available Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet.
Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens.
Biosensors for plant pathogen detection. Infectious plant diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, phytoplasma and nematodes. Worldwide, plant pathogen infections are among main factors limiting crop productivity and increasing economic losses. Plant pathogen detection is important as first step to manage a plant disease in greenhouses, field conditions and at the country boarders. However these methodologies are time-consuming and require complex instruments, being not suitable for in-situ analysis.
Consequently, there is strong interest for developing new biosensing systems for early detection of plant diseases with high sensitivity and specificity at the point-of-care. In this context, we revise here the recent advancement in the development of advantageous biosensing systems for plant pathogen detection based on both antibody and DNA receptors.
The use of different nanomaterials such as nanochannels and metallic nanoparticles for the development of innovative and sensitive biosensing systems for the detection of pathogens i. Plastic and paper-based platforms have been used for this purpose, offering cheap and easy-to-use really integrated sensing systems for rapid on-site detection. Beside devices developed at research and development level a brief revision of commercially available kits is also included in this review.
All rights reserved. The pus samples from diabetic foot ulcer patients and urine samples from urinary tract infected patients were collected and inoculated in nutrient agar plates.
The colonies showing different morphologies were streaked on selective agar plates. The antibacterial assay of selected commercial antibiotics was tested against the foot ulcer and urinary tract isolates.
The result revealed that most of the organisms were found to be resistant against the antibiotics. Screening of antibacterial activity of selected plants , methanol extracts of plants were prepared and tested against foot ulcer pathogens. Among the plants used, the methanolic extract Tragia involucrata was very effective against the foot ulcer pathogens and to separate the compounds present in the methanolic extract of T.
The fractions obtained were further checked for their antibacterial property and fraction 1 which inhibited the pathogens , were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the structure of the particular phytochemical compound was elucidated by NMR study. The spices were tested for their antibacterial property against the urinary tract pathogens.
Among the spices tested; Allium sativum inhibited the growth of the pathogens isolated from urinary tract infection. It can be concluded that the plants extract can be used to discover natural products that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs. Dickeya dadantii syn. Using bacterial numeration and immunolocalization, we investigated the kinetics and the pattern of infection of this phytopathogenic bacterium within its insect host.
We compared infection by the wild-type strain and by the Cyt toxin-deficient mutant. Septicemia occurred soon after, with the fat body being the main infected tissue, together with numerous early infections of the embryonic chains showing embryonic gut and fat body as the target organs. Generalized septicemia led to insect death when the bacterial load reached about 10 8 cfu.
Some individual aphids regularly escaped infection, indicating an effective partial immune response to this bacteria. Cyt-defective mutants killed insects more slowly but were capable of localisation in any type of tissue. Cyt toxin expression appeared to be restricted to the digestive tract where it probably assisted in crossing over the first cell barrier and, thus, accelerating bacterial diffusion into the aphid haemocel.
Finally, the presence of bacteria on the surface of leaves hosting infected aphids indicated that the insects could be vectors of the bacteria. Full Text Available Dickeya dadantii syn. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi.
In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops.
In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques.
This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive intracellular, subcellular, extracellular and differential expression proteomics and interactomics.
From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.
Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens. The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants , such as apple scab Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection. Ecological niche of plant pathogens. Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments.
Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases.
Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research.
It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens , with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems.
The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host- pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.
To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs.
Search for microorganisms which can disrupt communication between plant pathogenic bacteria causing hairy roots disease in greenhouse vegetables. Hairy roots disease is an important problem in cultivation of greenhouse vegetables tomato, aubergine and cucumber. It has been shown that infection process is regulated by environmental factors and quorum sensing. Polimerase chain reaction PCR with which, the development of recombinant DNA tecnology, a technique commonly used in field of moleculer biology and genetic.
Duplication of the target DNA is provided with this technique without the need for cloning. Some fungus species, bacteria, viruses constitutent an important group of pathogenicity in human, animals and plants. There are routinely applied types of PCR in the detection of pathogens infections diseases. Plants , plant pathogens , and microgravity--a deadly trio. Leach, J. Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens.
The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways.
With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant 's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response.
Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses.
This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment. Paleogene radiation of a plant pathogenic mushroom. Full Text Available The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas.
Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species.
Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology
Hamdan Arfani 1. Dalam rangka mempertahankan kualitas internal telur perlu dilakukan upaya pengawetan. Salah satu upaya dimaksud adalah melapisi telur dengan minyak kelapa yang telah dipanaskan. Pengawetan telur dengan cara melapiskan minyak kelapa sebanyak 1 kali pada kerabang telur dapat memperpanjang masa simpan hingga 1 bulan. Namun, kerabang telur yang dilapisi dengan minyak kelapa lebih dari 1 kali belum ada informasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh frekuensi pelapisan ulang minyak kelapa dan jenis telur tersebut dalam mempertahankan kualitas internal telur. Telur yang digunakan sebanyak 72 butir, terdiri atas 24 butir telur ayam arab, 24 butir telur ayam ras, dan 24 butir telur itik.
String test for Laboratory diagnosis of Vibrio Cholerae
Dickeya dadantii, a plant pathogenic bacterium producing Cyt-like entomotoxins, causes septicemia in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. International audience; Dickeya dadantii syn. Erwinia chrysanthemi is a plant pathogenic bacteria that harbours a cluster of four horizontally-transferred, insect-specific toxin genes. It was recently shown to be capable of causing an acute infection in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Insecta: Hemiptera. The infection route of the pathogen , and the role and in vivo expression pattern of these toxins, remain unknown.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Shrimp disease caused by Vibrio sp is one of the main limiting factors in the increasing production in shrimp farming. This disease may kill the shrimp and cause high loss in shrimp culture in South East and East Asia. Samples of 10 individuals of a ten months cultured giant tiger prawn as well as 1 liter pond water and sea waters were collected from shrimp pond in Bengkalis Island, Sumatra.
Jurnal yang diterbitkan oleh Society of Open Science. Tujuan jurnal adalah untuk menyediakan makalah penelitian ilmiah dan artikel tentang perkembangan baru di bidang biologi dan untuk bertindak sebagai platform untuk pertukaran informasi antara akademisi, profesional dan peneliti industri. JALRB adalah jurnal akses terbuka, yang menerbitkan makalah penelitian asli, ulasan artikel, Bahasa English Tanggal Sepanjang waktu Sejak 9 Sejak 68 Rentang khusus Lawn quality, which introduces by good color, density, uniformity and texture varies depending on the species, maintenance operation, and time of the year.