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The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His translation of the commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha , presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha.
The title, "Dhammapada," is a compound term composed of dhamma and pada , each word having a number of denotations and connotations. Generally, dhamma can refer to the Buddha 's "doctrine" or an "eternal truth" or "righteousness" or all "phenomena";  and, at its root, pada means "foot" and thus by extension, especially in this context, means either "path" or "verse" cf.
According to tradition, the Dhammapada's verses were spoken by the Buddha on various occasions. In fact, it is possible that the very source of the Dhammapada in the third century B. Comparing the Pali Dhammapada, the Gandhari Dharmapada and the Udanavarga, Brough identifies that the texts have in common to verses, 16 chapter headings and an underlying structure.
He suggests that the three texts have a "common ancestor" but underlines that there is no evidence that any one of these three texts might have been the "primitive Dharmapada" from which the other two evolved. The Dhammapada is considered one of the most popular pieces of Theravada literature. The Pali Dhammapada contains verses in 26 chapters listed below in Pali and English. More than half the verses may be found also in other canonical texts. The compiler of the [Dhammapada] however certainly did not depend solely on these canonical texts but also made use of the great mass of pithy sayings which formed a vast floating literature in India.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the legend of an architect's daughter and son who completed a Konark temple in one night, see Dharmapada person. Dharma Concepts. Buddhist texts. Buddhism by country. Pettis, Boston Massachusetts? Buddhadatta , Colombo Apothecaries, ? The Buddha's Path of Virtue , tr F.
Burlinghame, Harvard Oriental Series , , 3 volumes; reprinted by Pali Text Society  , Bristol; translation of the stories from the commentary, with the Dhammapada verses embedded Tr R. Vaidya according to different bibliographies; or did one publisher issue two translations in the same year? Bhag w? Latter, Moulmein, Burma, ? Adikaram, Colombo, Tr A. Harvey , p. Fronsdal, p. If we translate the title based on how the term dhammapada is used in the verses [see Dhp verses 44, 45, ], it should probably be translated 'Sayings of the Dharma,' 'Verses of the Dharma,' or 'Teachings of the Dharma.
In addition, a number of the Dhammapada's verses are identical with text from other parts of the Pali tipitaka that are directly attributed to the Buddha in the latter texts.
The original manuscript is believed to have been written in the first or second century CE. The interrelation of these different versions has been obscured by constant contamination in the course of the text transmission. This is particularly true in case of one of the Buddhist Sanskrit parallels. By adding verses from the Dhp [Dhammapada] it was transformed into a Dhp parallel in course of time, which is a rare event in the evolution of Buddhist literature. After considering the hypothesis that these texts might lack a "common ancestor," Brough , p.
The differing developments and rearrangements of the inherited material would have proceeded along similar lines to those which, in the Brahmanical schools, produced divergent but related collections of texts in the different Yajur-veda traditions. He then continues Since the contrary appears to have been assumed from time to time, it is desirable to say with emphasis that the Pali text is not the primitive Dharmapada. The assumption that it was would make its relationship to the other texts altogether incomprehensible.
In Buswell, Jr. Macmillan Encyclopedia of Buddhism. Arhant; VI. Citta; IX. Sukha; XII. Sthavira; XIII. Yamaka; XIV. Sahasra; XX. Jama; 2. Attha; 6. Tahna; Mala; Citta; Sahasra; [ Retrieved Cambridge University Press. Topics in Buddhism. Outline Glossary Index. Category Religion portal. Gautama Buddha. Commons Wikiquote. Categories : Khuddaka Nikaya Buddhist poetry. Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from July Articles with permanently dead external links Webarchive template wayback links Articles with text from the Prakrit languages collective Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text Articles with LibriVox links.
Twin Verses Yamaka-vaggo [ edit ]. All that we are is the result of what we have thought: it is founded on our thoughts, it is made up of our thoughts. If a man speaks or acts with an evil thought, pain follows him, as the wheel follows the foot of the ox that draws the carriage.
If a man speaks or acts with a pure thought, happiness follows him, like a shadow that never leaves him.
For hatred does not cease by hatred at any time: hatred ceases by love, this is an eternal rule. Balavagga [ edit ].
Even though, month after month, the fool living in austerity takes his food sparingly with the tip of a grass blade, he is not worth even one-sixteenth part of those who have comprehended the Truth i. He who seeks his own happiness by hurting or killing beings, never finds happiness and will not escape from his sufferings. He who seeks his own happiness not by hurting or killing beings but by purifying oneself; will find happiness and ends all sufferings.
Do not speak harshly to anyone; those who are spoken to will answer you in the same way. Indeed, Angry speech is painful and retaliation may overtake you. XII: Self Atta-vaggo [ edit ]. If a man hold himself dear, let him watch himself carefully; during one at least out of the three watches a wise man should be watchful.
Let each man direct himself first to what is proper, then let him teach others; thus a wise man will not suffer. If a man make himself as he teaches others to be, then, being himself well subdued, he may subdue others ; one's own self is indeed difficult to subdue.
One is one's own refuge, what other refuge can there be?? With self well subdued, a man finds a refuge such as few can find. The evil done by oneself, self-begotten, self-bred, crushes the foolish, as a diamond breaks a precious stone.
He whose wickedness is very great brings himself down to that state where his enemy wishes him to be, as a creeper does with the tree which it surrounds.
Bad deeds, and deeds hurtful to ourselves, are easy to do; what is beneficial and good, that is very difficult to do. The foolish man who scorns the rule of the venerable Arahat , of the elect Ariya , of the virtuous, and follows false doctrine, he bears fruit to his own destruction, like the fruits of the Katthaka reed. By oneself the evil is done, by oneself one suffers; by oneself evil is left undone, by oneself one is purified.
Purity and impurity belong to oneself, no one can purify another. Let no one forget his own duty for the sake of another's, however great; let a man, after he has discerned his own duty, be always attentive to his duty.
XIII: World [ edit ]. Rouse yourself, be diligent, in Dhamma faring well. Not to commit any sin, to do good, and governance of one's mind, that is the teaching of all the Awakened. XX: The Way Magga-vaggo [ edit ].
The Buddhist scholar and commentator Buddhaghosa explains that each saying recorded in the collection was made on a different occasion in response to a unique situation that had arisen in the life of the Buddha and his monastic community. His translation of the commentary, the Dhammapada Atthakatha , presents the details of these events and is a rich source of legend for the life and times of the Buddha. The title, "Dhammapada," is a compound term composed of dhamma and pada , each word having a number of denotations and connotations. Generally, dhamma can refer to the Buddha 's "doctrine" or an "eternal truth" or "righteousness" or all "phenomena";  and, at its root, pada means "foot" and thus by extension, especially in this context, means either "path" or "verse" cf.
by Ven Nàrada